复合结构中不定式用法
来源: | 作者:zznyy整理 | 时间:2010-08-15 | 浏览  | 设置字体:

  在复合结构中用的不定式知识整理

  不定式可以和名词(或代词)构成复合结构,作动词的宾语,称为复合宾语:

  I didn't expect you to arrive so early. 没想到你来得这么早。

  We shouldn't allow such things to happen again. 我们不应允许再发生这样的事。

  They encouraged her to try again. 他们鼓励她再试一次。

  Her mother forbid her to go out. 她妈妈禁止她出去。

  She asked me to call again. 她请我再去一次电话。

  May I request you to be present at the ceremony? 我可否请你出席这次仪式?

  Would you like us to go with you? 你愿意我们和你一道去吗?

  I'll leave him to solve the problem for himself. 我将让他自己去解决这个问题。

  He wants you to call him back at 11. 他要你十一点钟给他回电话。

  He required us to write clearly. 他要求我们字迹要清楚。

  His conscience compelled him to tell the truth. 他的良心促使他讲出了真情。

  I'll get someone to repair the recorder for you. 我去找个人来帮你们修录音机。

  在很多动词后面都可以有这样的宾语,常见的这类动词有:ask, tell, invite, compel, force, oblige, get, beg, allow, help, wish, want, like, hate, prefer, intend, expect, encourage, advise, persuade, instruct, permit, remind, request, order, command, warn, cause, press, urge等。

  在make, let, have, see, hear, watch, notice, feel等动词后的复合宾语中,不定式都不带to:

  What made you think like that? 是什么使你这样想?

  Let me do it for you. 让我来替你做。

  I hate to see you leave so soon. 我真不愿意你这么快就走。

  Don't forget to have him come. 别忘了让他来。

  I often hear them sing this song. 我常常听到他们唱这首歌。

  Suddenly we felt the atmosphere grow tense. 突然我们感到气氛紧张起来。

  但这种句子如果变为被动结构。to就不能不要:

  She was often seen to act like that. 人们常常看见她这样做。

  They were made to work day and night. 他们被迫日夜干活。

  像think,consider,believe,suppose,know,feel,find,understand,declare,take这类动词后,也可以有复合宾语,但这种宾语中的不定式短语多由to be加一形容词构成:

  They believed there principles to be universally true. 他们认为这些原则是普遍适用的。

  He doesn't consider that to be important. 他并不认为这很重要。

  Many people supposed him to be dead. 很多人都以为他死了。

  I felt them to be right. 我觉得他们是对的。

  They found the answer to be quite satisfactory. 他们对答复感到很满意。

  She imagined herself to be superior to others. 她自以为比别人都高明。

  这种结构在书面语中用得较多,在口语中多用宾语从句。在个别动词(如think,consider,find)后,不用to be,直接用形容词也可以:

  They found the answer quite satisfactory.

  在某些成语动词(如wait for,call on,count upon,vote for,rely on,depend upon,long for,prevail upon,care for等)后面,我们也可以用这样的复合宾语,如:

  The government called on us to increase production. 政府号召我们增加生产。

  You can count on us to give you full support. 你们放心,我们将给你们全力支持。

  We'll vote for Peter to be our monitor. 我们将投票彼得的票,让他作班长。

  We are all longing for the new term to begin. 我们都渴望新学期开始。

  在listen to和look at后面的复合宾语中,不定式常不带to:

  She listened to the rain patter on the window-panes. 她倾听着雨水敲打着玻璃窗。

  It is quite amusing to look at (=watch) other people play chess. 看别人下棋很有意思。

  注: 在help后,不定式可以带to也可以不带to:

  Can anyone help me (to) carry the suitcase upstairs?

  She will help (to) mend the coat for you.

  上面谈到的这类句子,有时可以变为被动结构:

  The students are always encouraged to put forward their views. 我们总是鼓励学生提出自己的看法。

  You are requested to be present at an English evening to be held at the school auditorium on Friday, at 7p.m.

  谨订于本星期五晚七点在本礼堂举行英语晚会,请出席指导。

  The situation was found to be quite encouraging. 形势看来很使人鼓舞。

  Finally she was prevailed upon to take the job. 最后她被说服接受了这个工作。

  Who can be depended upon to carry on the work? 可以依靠什么人来进行这个工作。

  除了上面这些带复合结构的句子外,还有两类复合结构的句子。一类是以be said,be reported,be known,seem,happen,prove,appear等构成谓语的句子:

  He is said to be from a peasant family. (It is said that he is from a peasant family.)

  据说他出身农民家庭。

  The movenment was reported to be in full swing. (It was reported that the movement was in full swing.)

  据报导这运动正全面展开。

  She doesn't seem to have enough confidence in herself. (It seems that she doesn't have enough confidence in herself.)

  她似乎对自己没有充分信心。

  The country is known to be rich in natural resources. (It is known that the country is rich in natural resources.) 据了解这个国家有丰富的自然资源。

  一类是以be likely,be certain,be sure,be unlikely,be destined等构成谓语的句子:

  They are likely to be on the school farm now. (It is likely that they are on the school farm now.) 他们现在多半在学校农场里。

  She is unlikely to come back this week. (It is unlikely that she will come back this week.) 她这星期回来的可能 性不大。

  On our road of advance we are bound to meet with difficulties. 在我们前进的道路上我们肯定会碰到困难。

  Victory is sure to be ours. 胜利一定属于我们。

  The growth in demand is certain to drive up the price. 需求的增长一定会使价格升高。

  在这两节的句子中,不定式和前面的动词构成复合谓语,这问题在句法中再详细讨论。

  注: 不定式与助动词或情态动词构成谓语的情况第十一章中已说得很多,这里就不再谈了。另外在I don't think it advisable to start so early.这样的句子中,不定式也是用来和别的词构成复合宾语,已经在第217节中讲到,这里也不再讲了。另外下面句子也可说包含一个复合谓语:

  How did you get to know it? 你怎么知道的?

  Now I'm coming to see it more and more clearly. 现在我看得越来越清楚了。


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