不定式的被动形式讲解
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  不定式的被动形式

  当不定式的逻辑上的主语是这不定式所表示的动作的承受者时,不定式一般要用被动形式。这种形式可以用来:

  1)作主语:

  It is an honour for me to be asked to speak here. 我很荣幸被邀在这里讲话。

  Is it possible for our hopes to be realized? We believe it is. 我们的希望能实现吗? 我们相信是可以的。

  It's necessary for us to be constantly reminded of our shortcomings. 经常有人提醒自己注意缺点是必要的。

  2)作宾语:

  She asked to be sent to work in Tibet. 她请求派她到西藏去工作。

  He preferred to be assigned some heavier work to do. 他宁愿给他些更重的工作做。

  She hated to be flattered. 她讨厌受人奉承。

  3)构成复合宾语:

  He wanted the letter to be typed at once. 他让把信马上打好。

  She didn't like herself to be praised like that. 她不喜欢自己受到那样的赞扬。

  He didn't expect the book to be so well received. 他没想到这本书会受到这样的欢迎。

  4)构成复合谓语:

  This is bound to be found out. 这准会被人发现。

  The books are not allowed to be taken out of the room. 这些书不许携出室外。

  The date is expected to be announced soon. 估计日期不久就会宣布。

  5)作定语:

  Are you going to the banquet to be given at the embassy?

  你准备参加大使馆举行的宴会吗?

  There are a lot of things to be done. 有很多事要做。

  It was the first such project to be designed by Chinese engineers.

  这是中国工程师设计的第一个这类工程。

  The questions to be answered are on page 32. 需回答的问题在第32页上。

  6)作状语:

  The kids went to the hospital to be inoculated. 孩子们到医院去种牛痘去了。

  She was too young to be assigned such work. 她年纪太小,不适宜把这工作交她做。

  就是逻辑上的主语不出现,只要在意思上是被动的,这不定式仍然要用被动式:

  It's a great honour to be elected a model teacher. 选为模范教师是很大的荣誉。

  To be criticized might be a good thing. 受批评可能是件好事。

  不定式有时还可以有完成式的被动式,在句中用作主语(a),宾语(b),或构成复合宾语(c),或复合谓语(d),间或用作定语(e):

  a. It is a good thing for him to have been criticized. 他受到批评是件好事。

  b. She preferred to have been given heavier work to do. 她宁愿分给她的是更重的工作。

  c. They knew him to have once been arrested by the police. 他们知道他被警察逮捕过。

  He thought it an honour to have been invited to the party. 被邀参加晚会他感到很荣幸。

  d. The book is said to have been translated into many languages. 这书据说已被译成好几种语言。

  He is not likely to have been notified about it. 这事多半还没有通知他。

  e. She was the first woman to have been elected to such a post. 她是第一个选上这样位置的妇女。

  这时,这不定式表示的是一个比谓语动作发生得更早的动作。

  注:不定式的被动式用来构成谓语的情况在179中已经讲到,这里就不谈了。

  在某些结构中不定式虽然表示被动的意思,用的却是主动形式:

  a. He has no one to take care of. 没有什么人需要他照顾。

  (比较:He has no one to take care of him. 没有谁照顾他。)

  We still have many difficulties to overcome. 我们还有很多困难要克服。

  b. Give him some books to read. 给他点书看。

  He'll show you the right path to take. 他将告诉你该走什么道路。

  c. They found the lecture hard to understand. 他们发现这报告不好懂。

  I don't consider that a proper thing to do. 我想这不是正确的做法。

  d. It is a hard nut (for one) to crack. 这是一个棘手的问题。

  He is not easy (for anyone) to convince. 他不容易被说服。

  在这些句子中,虽然不定式与最近的名词(代词)有动宾关系,但与句子中另一个名词(代词)却可能有主谓关系,如前三类情况都是如此,这或许是用主动形式的原因。在a,b两类句子中,如果没有这种主谓关系,不定式就仍以用被动式较好,如:

  a. Have you anything to be taken to the city (by me or someone else)?

  你有什么东西需要(让我或其他人)带到城里去?

  I have no more letters to be typed, thank you.

  谢谢你,我没有什么信要打了。

  b. Please give me the books to be distributed among the students.

  请把要发给学生的书交给我。

  Let me show you the room to be used as the teacher's readingroom.

  我来带你去看看要用作教员阅读室的那个房间吧。

  另外,在以there is (are)引起的句子中,用来修饰主语的不定式可以用被动式,也可以用主动形式:

  There is no time to lose (to be lost). 时间紧迫,不能耽误了。

  There are still many things to take of (to be taken care of). 还有好些事要处理。

  Are there any more items to put (to be put) on the agenda? 还有什么别的项目该列入议程?

  在口语中用主动形式的时候更多一些。但有时候两种形式可能表示不同的意思,如:

  There is nothing to do now. (We have nothing to do now.) 现在没事儿干。

  There is nothing to done now. (We can do nothing now 现在没有什么办法了。

  There is nothing to see (nothing worth seeing). 没有东西值得看。

  There nothing to be seen (nothing there at all). 看不见有什么东西。

  注:在下面类型的句子中,to let, to blame, to seek等不定式,都是主动形式,却有被动意思:

  The house is to let. 房子要出租。

  Who is to blame for it? 这得怪谁?

  The reason is not far to seek. 这理由不难找到。

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